Cardiovascular health refers to the health of the heart and blood vessels i.e. the cardiovascular system. The American Heart Association (AHA) defines ideal cardiovascular health by the absence of clinically manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) together with the optimal levels of behavioural (diet quality, physical activity, smoking, body mass index (BMI)) and health (blood cholesterol, blood pressure (BP), blood glucose) metrics referred to as ‘’Life’s Simple 7”.
CVD, which includes coronary heart disease or ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, congenital heart disease and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), remains the leading cause of death globally. Cardiometabolic disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and metabolic syndrome are common risk factors for CVD. The steady increase of these risk factors and the current global incidence of CVD compels a worldwide search for more effective strategies to prevent and modify the course of CVD.