Physical activity, defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure, and sport, in which a skilled individual or team actively compete against another or others for entertainment, have long been used as tools to improve health.
WHO defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’’
Regular and adequate levels of physical activity: improve muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness; improve bone and functional health;
reduce the risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and cancer; reduce the risk of falls as well as hip or vertebral fractures; and is fundamental to energy balance and weight control. Beyond physical health, regular physical activity and sport participation is associated with better mental health outcomes and improved social well-being.
A comprehensive analysis of physical activity and sports performance requires both subjective (self-reported questionnaires) and objective (e.g. lung function by peak expiratory flow (PEF)) assessments